Highly adapted desert-dweller. Pale coloration and large hooves are adaptations to hot sandy habitat. Nomadic species, exploiting ephemeral annual pastures and more permanent perennial grazing. Movement out of the desert during periods of drought or during hot season in search of shade and grazing.
Forms small mixed herds of up to a dozen individuals, although larger groupings do occur in areas of favourable grazing or during seasonal movements to new pasture.
Inhabits sandy desert with dune fields and firmer sand sheets. Strong seasonal association with areas of perennial desert pastures composed of tussock grasses (Stipagrostis spp.) and succulent thorn scrub (Cornulaca).
Distribution currently restricted to a narrow band of desert between eastern Niger and western Chad. Possible vagrants from Niger to southern Algeria. Situation unknown in former strongholds in Mauritania.
Once widespread across North Africa, the addax has been largely extirpated by over-hunting since the mid-1800s. Although highly adapted to hyper-arid conditions, addax are nonetheless impacted by long periods of severe drought.
Critically Endangered with probably less than 300 in the wild. Last major population of around 200 in the Tin Toumma desert of eastern Niger. Appendix I species on both CITES and Migratory Species conventions.